(e) Most financial accounts and cost statements of sponsored agreements are maintained on the basis of a financial year that ends each year on 30 November. However, employees` holiday pay is regularly managed on the basis of a „leave year” which ends each year on 30 September. Vacation expenses are estimated uniformly for each „vacation year”. Each year, during the month of October, adjustments are made to adjust the accumulated liability to actual satisfaction and the estimate rates are modified to the extent deemed appropriate. This use of a separate period to determine the amount of vacation expenses is allowed. Circle Economy and Ecofys have published a white paper that provides information on key strategies for transitioning to a circular state. It also highlights existing circular examples in today`s world. It would be inappropriate to charge the cost of those activities directly to certain sponsored agreements if, in similar circumstances, the costs of implementing the same type of activity for other sponsored agreements were included in the institution`s R&A cost pools as eligible costs. The application of pre-negotiated R&D rates may also be inappropriate if the directly invoiced activity costs were not provided for in the allocation base used to determine the predefined R&D rates. (a) An educational institution allocates indirect expenditure to research organised on the basis of a modified overall direct cost. In a proposal for a sponsored agreement, it assesses the attributable expenditure solely on the basis of the estimated amount of indirect costs allocated to organised research and the amount of the revised overall base for the direct costs foreseen during the eight months during which the service is to start and be completed. Such a proposal would be contrary to the requirements of this standard, namely that the calculation of the amounts of the indirect cost pools and allocation bases is based on the costing period of the educational institution. Freight, express, carting, postage and other transport services related to goods purchased, processed or delivered are permitted….